Implementation progress (4)
Ground actions to validate practicality of low emissions development that simultaneously meets climate objectives & socioeconomic priorities are progressing in Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire & the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
In Cameroon, in line with the NDC priority to increase renewable energy installed capacity & enhance green agro-value chains, feasibility studies have been concluded on 4 sites. Here pilot actions of greening agro-value chains using clean energy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) and efficient transport are been undertaken. Specific actions involve linking off-grid micro-hydro plants of up to 30kW & solar plants to various levels of cassava processing & value addition. The cassava products will then be linked to markets & supply chains using low carbon print mobile applications instead of traditional paper processes & physical travel that have a higher carbon print. Already, a mobile app to facilitate this linkage complete with a payment gateway has been tested.
In Cote D’Ivoire, in line with NDC priorities to increase renewable energy, enhance waste management and smart agriculture, the ground action is demonstrating an agriculture waste to energy & bio-fertilizer production as a low emissions development path. The waste to energy is expected to reduce the forest harvesting for firewood to enhance forest sinks & reduce land based emissions. The bio-fertilizer is expected to enhance a smart agriculture industry pathway of creating jobs while enhancing food security. Two waste-to-energy enterprises are developing bio-digesters & fuel briquettes from rice waste. The slurry from these waste-to-energy systems will be used to manufacture bio-fertilizer. The accompanying business plan is to sell the improved stoves to eateries businesses in the area to reduce their reliance on charcoal & kerosene thus cut their fuel costs. The bio-fertilizer will be sold to farmers in the area. Feasibility studies are near finalized and 2 sites have been selected to conduct the pilot actions.
In DRC, the demonstration focuses on waste-to-energy & bio-fertilizer with linkage to consolidate DRCs REDD+ process. This responds to leading DRC NDC priorities of waste to energy, forest management, sustainable agriculture and scaling clean energy by integrating them for complementarity. The REDD+ component is critical considering DRC holds Africa’s largest & the world’s second largest rainforest storing 25-30 billion tons of carbon. This is under threat considering biomass is the source of fuel for 94% of DRC’s population and creates income opportunities through harvesting up to 490,000 tons of charcoal annually. Through this project, a trajectory of alternative domestic fuel & livelihood opportunities in briquettes & organic fertilizer production will be established to forestall forest degradation. A site, North Kivu has been shortlisted to build on on-going briquettes enterprises by including a component of using “agriculture & household waste” and additional product of bio-fertilizer.
Modelling support is establishing an analytical framework to inform optimal investment decisions in NDCs implementation maximizing both socioeconomic & climate objectives. The key issue considered is ensuring modelling can extrapolate the cumulative carbon mitigation (e.g. carbon sinks enhanced, carbon sequestered etc.) & socioeconomic (e.g. jobs created, %GDP expansion, income savings etc.) impact of scaling alternative investment trajectories of NDCs implementation vis-à-vis business as usual (BAU) investment trajectories.
Modelling teams have been constituted in the 8 countries drawing technical actors from priority NDC sectors – primarily energy, agriculture, economic planning and climate sectors of environment & forestry. In each of the countries, leading institutions of regional repute have been appointed to lead the country modelling teams. For example, in Cameroon, the University of Yaoundé 1 is the lead. In Mozambique, the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry (FAEF), the Eduardo Mondlane University is the lead. In Zambia, the Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD), under the Ministry of Transport and Communication is the lead.
Inventories of existing greenhouse gas emission models have been analysed by country teams to establish gaps to be bridged to enhance their capability to model cumulative effect of integrating sectors and simultaneously model socioeconomic & climate impacts. In Cameroon, 4 models - REMI models, RIMS II, JEDI, and IMPLAN, have been shortlisted for enhancement. The enhancement involves integrating these models so they complement each other for policy decision support to maximize job creation, income & macro-economic growth alongside carbon offsetting impacts of an investment trajectory of greening agro-value chains utilizing clean energy for processing and transportation - the chosen strategic trajectory for Cameroon NDC implementation. Starting off with the cassava value chain demonstrated under component 1 but factoring flexibility for expansion into crop value chains in all 5 agro-ecological zones of Cameroon.
In Cote d’Ivoire, a total of 33 inventoried models were evaluated. 2 models – LEAD and T21, are been developed into an integrated modelling tool to extrapolate cumulative socioeconomic & carbon offsetting impacts of policies upscaling the chosen country NDC priorities. Training on the EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool, and EX-ACT Value Chain were also undertaken through collaboration with the UN FAO bioenergy project for potential of integrating these into the integrated model.
The international technical team has been linked up with the country modelling teams and the process of analysing gaps to bridge by adapting models & training modelling teams towards establishing the country modelling structure is underway. The Centre for Climate Strategies USA (CCS) is technically backstopping country teams in Cameroon, Cote d’Ivore, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is technically backstopping Kenya, Morocco, and Zambia. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) of the University of Amsterdam is backstopping Ghana and Mozambique.
These overlap both components 1 & 2. These task forces are being established as permanent ministerial task forces responsible for harmonizing sectorial policies for complementarity in maximizing the climate & socioeconomic impacts of NDCs implementation. This is by ensuring models are integrated into decision processes in respective ministries and that lessons & case studies developed in conducting the ground demonstration are integrated to inform policy priorities & planning in NDCs implementation.
Task forces hosted by Ministries of Environment have been established in Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, DRC, and Ghana. These task forces have drawn membership from policy makers from key economic & climate related ministers aligned to the prioritized NDC sectors. These are awaiting gazettement by Ministries of Environment to be a permanent feature in policy decision making in the countries.
To facilitate upscaling of this trajectory, modelling research institutions – the University of Yaoundé 1 – Cameroon; the University of Eduardo Mondlane – Mozambique; the Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering - Zambia - currently engaged in modelling actions in these countries amongst others will form peer-to-peer learning forums with their network of institutions Which will help infuse lessons into curriculum & research work and disseminate the same across the continent.
To facilitate upscaling of the trajectory of maximizing both socioeconomic & climate impacts of NDCs implementation, 3 modelling research institutions of regional repute currently leading project actions in their countries have been identified to become sub-regional LEDS champion hubs. These will, through curriculum development, research & training, lead in disseminating the project trajectory in their respective regions and across the continent through a peer learning network covering each of the 5 regions of Africa. These are the University of Yaoundé 1 – Cameroon; the University of Eduardo Mondlane – Mozambique; the Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering – Zambia. Additional institutions leading the LEDS work will be included.